All type of electrical panel, Online ups, sevo Staplizer Transformer, chemical earthing and lighting arrester 

What is an electrical control panel?

An electrical control panel is an enclosure, typically a metal box or plastic moulding which contains important electrical components that control and monitor a number of mechanical processes. They are energised systems that require maintenance, with planned preventative maintenance and condition-based monitoring being the most effective methods. Electrical personnel will need to gain access within control panels for fault finding, adjustments, and electrical safety testing. Operators will interact with the controls of the panel to operate and control the plant and process. Components within the control panel will facilitate many tasks, for example, they may monitor pressure or flow within a pipe and signal to open or close a valve. They are commonplace and integral to most industries. Problems with them, including neglect, can cause havoc to any business operation and endanger employees. This makes the safe operation of panels a desirable skill for both electrical and non-electrical workers. 

Chemical Earthing

Chemical Earthing is a traditional earthing system whereby chemicals are added to earthing pits such as bentonite or graphite-based compounds used that helps in improving the condition of the soil and reducing the soil resistivity. Chemicals are used in this earthing type to lower earthing resistance.  

What is Earthing?

The process of transferring instant emission of electrical energy directly to the Earth with the help of low resistance wire is known as an earthing or technically it is called an electrical earthing. The electrical earthing is done by connecting the current-less carrying part of the electrical or electronic equipment or neutral of the supply system to the ground. 

To ensure that industries, buildings, and homes are safe, they must have a properly designed electrical earthing system. The two main design goals to be achieved by any earthing system under both normal and fault conditions are:

What is Lightning?

Lightning is a phenomenon of electric discharge of a charged cloud to ground. During thunderstorms, the potential of the cloud is raised significantly higher than the ground potential and the surrounding air loses its insulating property. Essentially, the cloud and ground form a capacitor with air as its dielectric.

For a lightning to occur, the potential gradient of the air must be broken, which is around 30kV/cm. if the potential difference between the cloud and ground is high enough to break the potential gradient of air, then a huge discharge occurs in the form of lightning strike.

Lightning Strike causes a significant overvoltage and if it strikes a building, home or equipment, the huge potential can damage the equipment or start a fire.

 Protect Against Lightning

The damage caused by a lightning is destructive and you might have seen trees burning due to lightning. Hence, all the electrical equipment in power stations, substations and also overhead transmission lines must be protected from lightning strikes (both direct and indirect).

Some of the commonly used techniques and equipment to protect against lightning are:

You might have seen tall buildings having a sharp rod mounted on the top. This is known as a Lightning Rod or Earth Rod. The other end of the rod is connected to ground so that when a lightning strikes that building, the potential will be grounded instead of passing through the building.

Overhead Ground Wires or Earth Wires are usually placed above the towers that support overhead transmission lines. Earth Screen are usually used to protect power generating stations and substations. It consists of several copper conductors on all the electrical equipment that provide a low resistance path to ground in the event of lightning.

A Servo Stabilizer is a Servo motor controlled stabilization system that performs optimum voltage supply using a Buck\Boost transformer booster that captures voltage fluctuations from input and regulates current to the correct output. An AC synchronous motor adjusts voltage in clockwise or anticlockwise direction and manages the output voltage with components like control card,dimmer,comparator, transistors, mocs, etc.

Main Components & their Functioning

Voltage stabilizers efficiently regulate the voltage fluctuations. Voltage issues may arise due to bad wiring, overload, short circuits, or bad earthing. The stabilizers control and avoid any of such issues easily and effectively. They are beneficial in many ways. 

An electrical transformer is a machine that transfers electricity from circuit to circuit with a variable level of voltage without changing frequency. Today, they are designed to use alternating current, meaning that the fluctuation of current influences the source voltage fluctuation. So, increasing the current will increase the voltage and vice versa. 

Transformers help improves the electrical system's safety and efficiency by raising and lowering voltage levels when needed. They are used in a wide range of civil and industrial applications, mainly and perhaps most important in the distribution and regulation of electricity over long distances.

UPS is an abbreviation for Uninterruptible Power Supply and the reason for its name is that it provides a constant supply of power without any interruption. In Normal operation, it draws current from the AC mains and during a power outage; it draws current from its backup source.

A UPS system utilizes a DC power stored in the battery as its backup source. The UPS charges the battery from the AC mains through a Rectifier and charge controller circuit. At the same time, it supplies power to the output AC load. In case of power failure, the UPS utilizes this charged DC power in the battery and converts it into AC using an inverter and supplies it to the AC load.

Now the switch over between the sources (AC mains and the battery in case of power failure) is instantaneous. But it does take some time. This time delay during the switching may affect some sensitive electronic equipment while other devices may tolerate it in a specific range. This is where Online UPS and Offline UPS comes into play.